SYPHILIS (SYPHILIS); It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world.
According to the data published by clinicians in Turkey, its infection cases, alongside with the cases of
HIV infections cases, are an increasing. It is known to facilitate and ease the transmission of HIV. This
infection, which can be completely cured when detected in stages 1 and 2, can have fatal consequences
in stage 3 and beyond. It can be transmitted by Kissing, oral and vaginal and anal intercourse, as well
as by sexual fluid contact from areas where the skin integrity is impaired due to trauma.
Symptoms: Syphilis can cause many symptoms that vary according to its stage. The first symptom
is a painless sore (chancre), which usually appears within 3 weeks (3-90 days) following the
infection, usually in the genital area (it may vary according to the site of transmission, it can also
be seen in the throat and anal area). This may be accompanied by swelling of the lymph nodes,
which can be seen bilaterally in the groin. Untreated HIV-positive people may have more than
GONORRHEA (GONORRHEA); The first symptoms appear within 7-10 days after infection with the
bacterium. In some cases, it shows no symptoms. It is an infection that can be treated with antibiotics.
It can be transmitted by oral, anal, and vaginal sexual intercourse. It is the most common sexually
transmitted infection in our country.
Symptoms; Pain, pain and burning sensation when urinating, chronic groin pains, redness in the anus
area, stools with mucus and pus, painful sexual intercourse, yellow-green discharge from the penis,
vagina, or anus.
Diagnosis and Treatment; It is placed with a clinical examination and a sample of discharge from the
penis, cervix, and anus. Treatment must be regulated and followed by a doctor. Random use of
antibiotics can cause serious problems in the treatment of other infectious diseases as it may cause the
formation of bacteria resistant to these drugs.
HEPATITIS B; Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B is one of the viruses that
cause this inflammation. The virus settles in the liver after infection and causes destruction in this
tissue over time. If left untreated, it can have serious consequences. Infection can be transmitted by the
passage of sexual fluids during sexual intercourse. The risk of transmission is very high because the
virus, which can be found in body secretions such as blood, genital fluids, saliva, milk, sweat, tears, is
resistant to external conditions. The use of uncontrolled blood and blood products and non-sterile
needles, syringes and materials with subcutaneous contact or can be transmitted directly from mother
to baby. The most effective way of protection is vaccination and the use of condoms during sexual
Symptoms: Some symptoms are fever, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea-vomiting, abdominal pain,
darkening of urine color, jaundice in the skin and eyes, and joint pain.
Diagnosis and Treatment: It is detected by blood test. Treatment: Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable
infection. Be sure to see your physician for detection and vaccination of the presence of protective
antibodies against hepatitis B.
GENITAL WARTS (HPV); Those are infections caused by the virus called Human Papilloma Virus.
Symptoms can be observed within 3 months after the virus enters the body.
Symptoms: painless pimples on the penis or vagina, blisters on the skin.
Diagnosis and Treatment: Viruses in the external genitals have no effect other than being contagious
and aesthetically uncomfortable, but viruses that settle in the cervix cause cervical cancer. There is no
definitive method of treatment. The most effective prevention is to get the HPV vaccine in early
GENITAL HERPES (HERPES): Herpes occurs in the genital areas due to a virus that causes genital
herpes infection. Symptoms appear within a week after the virus enters the body.
Symptoms: muscle and headache, weakness, high fever, fluid-filled blisters in the genital areas,
swelling in regional lymph.
Diagnosis and Treatment: Diagnosis is possible with a blood test. Treatment may be carried out, but
the virus may recur later.
HIV (HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS)
It is the infection caused by the virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It attaches to the cells of
the immune system and destroys these cells over time by disrupting the genetic structures of these
cells, causing the body’s immune resistance to decrease. Although HIV is a chronic infection with a
cure, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, known as AIDS, is seen in its advanced stage.
Symptoms: High fever, enlargement of the lymph nodes, wounds in the mouth, esophagus and genital
organs, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea that does not last for a long time, shortness of breath, cough ,
nausea and vomiting, weight loss, recurrent infections.
Ways of Transmission: HIV is found in the blood, vaginal fluid, semen and breast milk.
● It can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse. The risk of transmission increases as
the number of unprotected sexual intercourse increases.
● It is transmitted through the blood. Blood and blood products containing the virus can be transmitted
through tissue and organ transplants, but HIV screening before transplants is now a legal requirement.
The most common factor in blood-borne transmission is the use of common intravenous injections.
● It can be transmitted from mother to baby. The virus can be passed to the baby during pregnancy,
during childbirth or while breastfeeding. With the necessary precautions and treatments, the rates of
virus transmission from mother to baby can be reduced to very low levels. HIV is not transmitted
through body fluids such as saliva, sweat, urine, tears. Behaviors such as sneezing, coughing, using the
same plate, fork, glass, using a common toilet bathroom, swimming pool use, shaking hands, kissing
do not carry a risk for HIV.
● Prevention After Risky Behavior (PeP): It is a type of preventive treatment carried out with the aim
of reducing the risk of infection after any suspected, risky situation. It helps prevent the spread of HIV
by self-replication against the risk of becoming infected with HIV after suspicious behavior. PeP must
be taken no later than 72 hours after the risky behavior. Even if taken during this time, PeP may not
provide definitive protection. For this reason, it is absolutely necessary to consult with a specialist
physician or health unit providing HIV diagnosis and treatment services.
Ways of Protection
To prevent HIV, the routes of transmission should be considered. Medical support and counseling from
specialists should be obtained to prevent the transmission from mother to baby. Sterile needles should
be used in intravenous substance use and injections, and they should not be shared with other people.
The most important method to prevent HIV is the continuous use of condoms. The idea that in the case
of monogamy there is no need to use condoms is widespread; But monogamy is not a method of
protection. Making sure the partner doesn’t have HIV reduces the risk of contracting the virus.